Chronology

  POLITICS & SOCIETY ART & ART INSTITUCIONS

1960

Enactment of the Law for Political, Professional and Labour Rights of Women and Children, which requires married women to have their husbands’ permission to work. Isabel Villar’s exhibition, University Club, Barcelona.
  Dolores Ibárruri becomes the first woman President of the Communist Party of Spain.
María Campo Alange founds the Seminar of Sociological Studies of Women.

1963

Publication of Women in Spain: One Hundred Years of History (1860-1960) by María Campo Alange. First solo show by Amèlia Riera at Belarte, Barcelona. María Antonia Dans wins the Villa de Paris award.

1964

From exile in London three Spanish anarchists decide to re-launch the newspaper first published in 1936 Mujeres libres. Esther Boix and María Girona join other artists to found Estampa Popular Catalana.

1965

The magazine Cuadernos para el diálogo publishes a special issue devoted to women.
First translation to Catalonian and Castilian Spanish of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique and Simone Beauvoir’s The Second Sex.
Birth of the Democratic Women’s Movement within the PCE (Spanish communist party).

1966

Ana Peter’s exhibition at the Edurne gallery of Madrid, “Images of Women in Consumer Society”. Mari Chordà begins the series Vaginal.

1967

Chordà produces the series Autorretrats embarassada. Núria Pompeia publishes her illustrated book Maternasis.

1968

Creation of the Castilian Association of Housewives.
1969
Lidia Falcón publishes Women and Society: Analysis of a Reactionary Phenomenon. Dorothée Selz, Miralda, Joan Rabascall and Jaume Xifra produce their first “ceremonial” in Paris.
1970
Juana de Aizpuru opens her gallery in Seville.

1971

Publication in Castilian Spanish of Monique Wittig’s Les guérillères. Isabel Oliver initiates the series of paintings Woman.
Esther Ferrer’s action Intimate and Personal is performed for the first time.
1972
Esther Ferrer, Paz Muro and Soledad Sevilla participate in the Pamplona gathering.
Carlos Pazos conceives Ni se compra ni se vende.

1973

Olga Pijoan performs the action TRA-73 at the Association of Architects of Barcelona.

1974

The series Misses by Ángela García Codoñer is shown for the first time at the Association of Architects of Valencia and Murcia.
1975 International Women’s Year.
1st Women’s Liberation Meetings, Madrid. The exhibition Contemporary Women in Culture held at the Fuensalida Palace of Toledo, curated by Isabel Cajide. As an expression of protest against International Women’s Year, Paz Muro performs the action The Jenny Loaded with Medals in Madrid. Marisa González begins the series Violence, Women and Maternity.
Translation into Castilian Spanish of Carla Lonzi’s Let’s Spit on Hegel and other writings on female liberation.
Founding of the Front d’Alliberament Gai of Catalonia (FACG) after the death of the dictator.
Victòria Sau publishes the Manifesto for Women’s Liberation.

1976

1st Catalonian Meetings of the Dona. Fina Miralles presents the performance Standard at Galería G in Barcelona. Eugènia Balcells exhibition Supermarcart at Vinçon venue in Barcelona.
Foundation of the magazine Vindicación Feminista.
Autobiography of a Sexually Emancipated Communist Woman by Alexandra Kollontai is translated.

1977

1st Feminist Meetings of Euskadi. Juan Hidalgo produces Biozaj apolíneo, biozaj dionisíaco. Montse Clavé publishes the comic Doble jornada.
  Creation in Madrid of the Homosexual Front of Revolutionary Action. Founding of the Col.lectiu de Lesbianes of Barcelona. First solo show by Paloma Navares, “Installation”, Propac gallery of Madrid.
  The feminist bar-library laSal opens on Riereta street in Barcelona.
  UCD government’s creation of the General Sub-Directorate of the Feminine Condition

1978

Approval of the Spanish Constitution Abolition of article 416 of the Civil Code, which outlawed female adultery and regulated the use of contraceptives. Eulàlia Grau presents Discriminació de la Dona in Sala Tres in Sabadell. Fina Miralles and Pilar Palomes participate in the Venice Biennale.

1979

2nd National Meetings Granada. The discrepancies between advocates of single and double militancy and between difference feminism and equal feminism are accentuated.
  Lidia Falcón founds the Feminist Party.
  1st National Gathering of Lesbians, Madrid.
The first Seminar of Women’s Studies (SEM) is launched at the Autonomous University of Madrid, promoted by María de los Ángeles Durán.

1980

Eugènia Balcells participates with Boy meets girl in the International Showcase of Women’s Films in New York.
  Itziar Elejalde produces the installation Penelope for the Gathering of the Women’s Assemby of Euskadi.

1981

Legalization of FACG, the first homosexual organization in Spain. Juana de Aizpuru promotes the launch of the ARCO art fair. In the first iteration there is a 4% participation of women artists.
  Meetings on abortion rights, Madrid.
Approval of the divorce law.

1982

Founding of DOAN, Dones Antimilitaristes.
2nd National Lesbian Meetings, Valencia.
The research centre DUODA is founded at the University of Barcelona, sphere of difference feminism studies.
1983
Creation of the Women’s Institute. Paz Muro produces the performances The Precious and Red Mill at ARCO 83.
Esther Ferrer produces The Book of Sex.

1984

Exhibition Women in Spanish Art (1900-1984), Conde Duque centre in Madrid.
1985
Law legalizing abortion in three scenarios. First International Women’s Film Festival. Congress The Image of Women in Spanish Art, Autonomous University of Madrid.
3rd National Feminist Meetings 10 Years of Feminism, Barcelona, Llars Mundet.
Publication of Toward a Criticism of a Patriarchal Reasoning by Celia Amorós.

1986

Gisela Ecker has Feminist Aesthetics published in Spanish.
Ana Casas begins her series Diet Notebook (1986-1992).
1987
Estrella de Diego publishes Women and 19thCentury Painting: Four Hundred and Some Forgotten.
1988
Laura Mulvey’s Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema is translated. Susana Solano (together with Jorge Oteiza) represents Spain at the Venice Biennale.
Opening of Ca la Dona feminist women’s centre in Barcelona.

1990

Amelia Valcárcel publishes Sex and Philosophy. Publication of Feminism and Theory of Discourse by Giulia Colaizzi.

1991

The queer group La Radical Gai is founded in Madrid.
  Creation of the women’s bookshop Pròleg in Barcelona.

1992

Estrella de Diego publishes Sexed Androgyny. Eternal Ideals, New Strategies of Gender.

1993

Raquel Osborne publishes The Sexual Construction of Reality. Soledad Sevilla wins the National Fine Arts Award.
Transsexual women participate for the first time in the 7th National Feminist Meetings. LSD group is founded in Madrid.
1993-1995. Second Plan for Equal Opportunities for Women. Designed to implement measures to increase real equality in the areas of education, training and employment. Mar Villaespesa curates 100% at the Contemporary Art Museum of Seville, the first show in Spain with clearly feminist content.

1994

The feminist group Erreakzioa-Reacción is founded in Euskadi. The show Art/Woman 94 opens at the Anthropological Museum of Madrid.

1995

Publication of 10 Key Words About Women with texts by Celia Amorós, Alicia H. Puleo, Rosa Cobo, Ana de Miguel… Isabel Tejeda curates Indefinite Territories in Elche. Eugènia Balcells has a show at the Reina Sofía Museum.
Creation of Hetaira, a group advocating rights for sex workers.

1996

Founding of La Escalera Karakola Women’s Social Centre in Madrid. During this decade there is an emergence of several independent women’s groups involved with squatting (Mambo, Las Ováricas, Tes Tenses…).

1997

1997-2000. 3rd Plan for Equal Opportunities for Women. Erreakzioa-Reacción organizes the workshop For your eyes only: the feminist factor in the visual arts, at Arteleku (San Sebastián).
Ana Martínez Collado creates the website www.Estudiosonline.net about art and women.

1998

Mar Villaespesa and Juan Vicente Aliaga curate the exhibition Transgenéric@s. Representations and Experiences of Society, Sexuality and Gender in Contemporary Spanish Art at Koldo Mitxelena in San Sebastian.

2000

Cabello/Carceller conceive Zone F for the EACC.

2001

Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble is translated into Castilian Spanish. Retrospective exhibition of Fina Miralles at Museu d’Art in Sabadell.
Transexualia joins the National Federation of Lesbians and Gays, which includes the “T” in its acronym (FELGT).

2002

The first book by Beatriz Preciado, Contra-sexual Manifesto, is published in Spain. Margarita Aizpuru curates The Beautiful Gender, presented in the Community of Madrid’s exhibition spaces.
2003
Postporn Marathon. Pornography, Postpornography. Aesthetics and Politics of Sexual Representation, directed by Beatriz Preciado, MACBA, Barcelona.
Patricia Mayayo publishes Histories of Women, History of Art.

2004

The comprehensive law against gender-based violence is enacted after the victory of the PSOE in the elections. There is gender parity in government for the first time in Spanish democracy.

2005

The law popularly known as the “express divorce law” is passed. Xabier Arakistain promotes Manifesto ARCO 2005, which demands public administrations to implement practical measures to achieve sexual equality in the field of art. María Corral and Rosa Martínez co-direct the 51st iteration of the Venice Biennale.
  The homosexual marriage law is passed, allowing homosexual couples to adopt children. Berta Sichel, Virginia Villaplana and Remedios Zafra organize Prison of Love. Cultural Stories of Gender Violence at MNCARS.
Ana Martínez-Collado publishes Tendenci@s. Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary Art. Carmen Navarrete, Fefa Vila and María Ruido write for Desacuerdos 2 “Trastornos para devenir- entre artes, políticas feministas y queer en el estado español”.

2006

Under the direction of Xabier Arakistain the Montehermoso centre in Vitoria launches a clearly feminist programme.
2007
The gender identity law is enacted. Transsexual persons can change their names on their I.D. cards. Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang: 45 Years of Art and Feminism at the Fine Arts Museum of Bilbao and The Gender Battles at the CGAC in Santiago.
The law for real equality between women and men is passed.

2008

Creation of the Ministry of Equality during the beginning of the second term of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government (abolished in October 2010). Esther Ferrer wins national fine arts award.

2009

National Feminist Meetings of Granada 2009, 30 Years of Feminism. The association MAV (Women in the visual arts) is founded. Everywhere. Politics of Sexual Diversity in Art is opened at the CGAC.

2010

The law of sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy known as the “abortion law” is passed.

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.
Required fields are marked:*

*

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>